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Spanish bayonet is a yucca plant that can reach 15 feet (4.5 meters) in height. The plant produces multiple thick, trunk-like stems in medium-dense clumps. Slightly serrated, stiff, straight leaves protrude from the thick stems. Younger leaves toward the top of the plant point straight up, while older leaves toward the base of the Spanish bayonet point downward. Spanish bayonet is native to North Carolina, Florida, Mexico and the West Indies, has been naturalized throughout most of the U.S., and is widely cultivated as a spectacular garden display in the U.S. and much of the world.
It should be noted that the Spanish bayonet has incredibly sharp, needle-like spines on the tips of its leaves. These spines are capable of penetrating even heavy clothing and deliver a deep, painful puncture wound. Therefore it is advisable to only grow this plant in areas where it is unlikely that people and pets will need to brush past. If only a small display is present, it is possible to remove the spines to minimize the risk of injury.
Spanish bayonet excels in partial shade with free-draining, slightly moist soil. It can tolerate long dry periods or periods of drought and still manages to thrive in nutrient-poor soil. In adverse conditions such as these, the plant still maintains good general health, but growth is often slower. This species has an exceptionally high salt tolerance and, thus, is often grown in coastal areas, particularly where other plant cover is sparse and the soil is poor.
This species is robust and hardy and has few pests or common diseases that do it harm. Leaf spots or powdery mildew may occur on occasion. While these diseases are unsightly, they do little serious or lasting damage to the Spanish bayonet. Leaf spot and mildew problems are treatable with the appropriate sprays.
When a trunk on the plant reaches or exceeds 15 feet (4.5 meters) in height, it often becomes top heavy and bends toward the ground. Upon reaching the ground, the growing tip once again bends and the plant starts growing upward again. When cultivating this plant for landscaping and gardening, it is possible to limit the plant to just one trunk if a grower repeatedly removes new stems as they appear. Spanish bayonet produces long, thin stems of bright white flowers from late spring to late summer. Each bloom is roughly 4.5 inches (10 cm) in diameter.